Background: Rotavirus vaccine performance appears worse in countries with high rotavirus genotype diversity. Evidence suggests diminished vaccine efficacy (VE) against G2P, which is heterotypic with existing monovalent rotavirus vaccine formulations. Most studies assessing genotype-specific VE have been underpowered and inconclusive.
Methods: We pooled individual-level data from ten Phase II and III clinical trials of rotavirus vaccine containing G1 and P antigens (RV1) conducted between 2000 and 2012. We estimated VE against both any-severity and severe (Vesikari score ≥11) rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) using binomial and multinomial logistic regression models for non-specific VE against any RVGE, genotype-specific VE, and RV1-typic VE against genotypes homotypic, partially heterotypic, or fully heterotypic with RV1 antigens. We adjusted models for concomitant oral poliovirus and RV1 vaccination and the country’s designated child mortality stratum.
Results: Analysis included 87,644 infants from 22 countries in the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia. For VE against severe RVGE, non-specific VE was 91% (95% confidence interval (CI): 87-94%). Genotype-specific VE ranged from 96% (95% CI: 89-98%) against G1P to 71% (43-85%) against G2P. RV1-typic VE was 92% (95% CI: 84-96%) against partially heterotypic genotypes but 83% (67-91%) against fully heterotypic genotypes. For VE against any-severity RVGE, non-specific VE was 82% (95% CI: 75-87%). Genotype-specific VE ranged from 94% (95% CI: 86-97%) against G1P to 63% (41-77%) against G2P. RV1-typic VE was 83% (95% CI: 72-90%) against partially heterotypic genotypes but 63% (40-77%) against fully heterotypic genotypes.
Conclusions: RV1 VE is comparatively diminished against fully heterotypic genotypes including G2P.
Amin AB, Tate JE, Waller LA, Lash TL, Lopman BA. Monovalent rotavirus vaccine efficacy against different rotavirus genotypes: a pooled analysis of Phase II and III trial data. Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Aug 29:ciac699.